Volume 6, Issue 1, June 2018, Page: 37-45
A New Insight to the Persis Kings (Frataraka)
Amir Amiri Nezhad, Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
Received: Apr. 21, 2018;       Accepted: May 5, 2018;       Published: Sep. 15, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ija.20180601.15      View  294      Downloads  17
History of Persia after the Alexander, which is called Hellenism, was written by local available resources to revive the history of local governments during Seleucids and Arsacids, especially the Persislocal government. No doubt the most useful and documented local resources are the coins minted by the Persis local kings which shows the Pars Province had internal autonomy for a while ruled by local governors. The present study covers a period from 300 B.C. until 130 B.C. in which reviewing the first group of coins of Persis kings well known as Frataraka. It carried out as a field and library research gathered and reviewed coins of Persis kings preserved at some museums such as Bank Sepah Museum, Ancient Iran Museum, Iran Money Museum and some official numismatic catalogues. No doubt, these coins contain some special political and religious symbols rooted in their past. The present study is aimed to review the historical events within the aforementioned period relied on knowledge of numismatics, which carried out by descriptive – analytical method in order to represent an exact history of Persis local government (Frataraka).
Coin, Frataraka, Persis, Local Government
To cite this article
Amir Amiri Nezhad, A New Insight to the Persis Kings (Frataraka), International Journal of Archaeology. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2018, pp. 37-45. doi: 10.11648/j.ija.20180601.15
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Rezakhani, K. [2010]. “The ‘Unbekannter König III’ and the Coinage of Hellenistic and Arsacid Persis,” International Journal of Iranian Studies (NIB) 15.
Mohamadifar, Y., Khani, A. [2015]. Reconstructing the history of the Persian king during the Parthian, in: Journal of Archaeological Studies, 6(2), 149-165.
Potts, D. T. [2007]. “Foundation houses, fire altars and Frataraka, interpreting the iconography of some post-Achaemenid Persian Coin”. Iranica antiqua 42, 271-300.
DeMorgan, J. [1923]. Manuel de Numismatique Orientale de L’Antiquite et du Moyen Age, Paris: P. Geuthner.
Kraay, C. M., Thompson, M., and Markholm, O. [1973]. an Inventory of Greek Coin Hoards, New York, NY: American Numismatic Society, pp. 256-259.
Plutarch. [1990]. Lives of renowned men, translated by Reza Mashayekhi, Tehran.
Olmstead, A. [1993]. The history of the Persian Empire, vol. 3, translated by Mohamad Moghaddam, Tehran.
Wilken, O., Berza, U. [1997]. Alexander the Macedonian, vol. 1, translated by H. Afshar, Tehran.
Bellinger, A. R. [1950]. An alexander hoard from Byblos, Berytus 10.
Bevan, E. K. [1902]. The house of Seleucus. Vol. 1, London, Edward Arnold Publication.
Edson, C. [1958]. Imperium Macedonicum: The Seleucid Empire and the literary evidence, Classical Philology 53 (3), 153-170.
Jenkins, G. K. [1978]. Coins, in Stronach, D., Pasargadae, Oxford: Clarcndon Press.
Wiesehöfer, J. [2009]. Fars under Seleucid and Parthian rule, in, V. S. Curtis and S. Stewart (eds.), The age of the Parthians, London, 37-49.
Rajabi, P. [2002]. Lost Millennium, vol. 4, Tehran.
Hill, G. F. [1967]. "The Coinage of the Ancient Persians", A Survey of Persian Art from Prehistoric Times to the Present, ed. A. U. Pope, vol. I, Tehran, London, New York, Tokyo.
Koch, H. [1988]. "Herrscher in der Persis unter Seleukiden und Parthern", WO 19.
Stiehl, R. [1959]. Chronologie der Fratadiira", EAltheim, Geschichte der Hunnen, Bd. I, Berlin, 1, 375-379, 1969.
Schmitt, H. H. [1964]. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Antiochos des Grossen und seiner Zeit, Wiesbaden.
Gotschmidt, A. [2009]. History of Iran and its neighboring countries from the time of Alexander the Parthian extinction, translated by K. Jahandar, Tehran.
Wiesehofer, J. [2007]. Die dunklenjahrhunderte der persis, translated by H. Sadeghi, Tehran.
Holleaux, M. [1942]. Etudes d'epigraphie et d'histoire grecque, vol., Lagides et Seleucides, Paris.
AmiriNezhad, A., Marofi, S., RahmanSetayesh, M. [2015]. Study on the Elymais and Fartaraka Coinage, Tehran.
Kennedy Eddie, S. [2002]. The Cult of monarchy in the East, translated by F. Badra, Tehran.
Saraf, M. [1993]. Elamite relief, Tehran.
Kawami, T. S. [1987]. Monumental art of the Parthian period in Iran. Leiden, Acta Iranica, Troisième Série, V. XIII.
Colledge, M. A. R. [1977]. Parthian art. New York, Ithaca.
Meyer, E. [1969]. Blute und Niedergang, Der Hellenismus in Mittelasien, ed. F. Altheim/ J. Rehork, Aarmstadt.
Houghton, A. [1983]. Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection, New York: Ancient Coins in North American Collections 4.
Sellwood, D. [1994]. History of Iran, Cambridge, vol. 3, translated by hasan anosheh, Tehran.
Alram, M. [1982]. Materialgrundlagen zu den iranischen Personennamen auf antiken Miinzen (Acharnenidische Satrapen; Persis; Sakas und Pahlavas), Phi! Diss (mschr), Wien.
Naster, P. [1968]. Note d'épigraphie monétaire de Perside: fratakara, frataraka, ou fratadāra? Iranica Antiqua 8, 74-80.
Ito, G. [1976]. Gathica XIV-XV, Orient, 47-66.
Hinz, J. [1979]. Understanding the Iranian myths, translated B. farokhi, Tehran.
Daryaee, T. [2010]. Ardaxsir and the Sasanians’ rise to power. Anabasis 1, 236-255.
Alram, M. [1986]. Iranisches Personennamenbuch: Nomina Propria Iranica in Nummis, Wien: OeAW.
Soodavar, A. [2004]. Ancient rituals divine charisma Kingdom, Tehran.
Naster, P. [1970]. "Fire-Altar or Fire-Tower on the Coins of Persis", OlP, 1, 125-129.
Schippmann, K. [1971]. Die iranischen Feuerheiligtiimer (Religionsgeschichtliche Versuche und Vorarbeiten, F), Berlin.
Erdmann, K. [1941]. Das iranische Feuerheiligtum (I I. Sendschrift del' Deutschen Orient-Gesell¬schaft), Leipzig.
Stronach, D. [1966]. "The Kuh-i Shahrak Fire Altar", ]NES, 25, 217-217 (=Fire Altar) Stronach, D., Pasargadae. A Report on the Excavations Conducted by the British Institute of Persian Studies from 196 I to 1963, Oxford, 1978.
Shahbazi, A. Sh. [1977]. "From Parsa to Taxt-e jamsid", AMI, N. E 10, 197-207 (=Parsa), hahbazi, A. Sh., "An Achaemenid Symbol, II. Farnah,(God Given) Fortune' Symbolised", AMI, N. E 13, 119-147, 1980.
Herzfeld, E. [1941]. “A history of ancient Persia”. Iran in the ancient east. London & New York, Oxford University Press.
Shenkar, M. [2011]. Temple architecture in the Iranian world in the Hellenistic period in, Anna Kouremenos et al. (eds.), From Pella to Gandhara, hybridization and identity in the art and architecture of the Hellenistic East, BAR int. Series 2221, 117-139.
Tilia, A. B. [1969]. Reconstruction of the Parapet on the Terrace Wall at Persepolis South and West of Palace H, East &West, N. S. 19, 9-43.
Roaf, M. [1983]. Sculptures and Sculptors at Persepolis (Iran, 2I), London, (=Sculptures) Robert, L., Hellenica. Recueil d'epigraphie, de numismatique et d'antiquites grecques, t, 7, Paris, 1949.
Debevoise, N. C. [1942]. The rock reliefs of ancient Iran. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 1 (1), 76-105.
Hall, J. [2001]. Culture graphic symbols in the art of East and West, translated by R. Behzadi, Tehran.
Bakhtoortash, N. [2005]. Flag of Iran from ancient history to today, Tehran.
Nylander, C. [1983]. "The Standard of the Great King - A Problem in the Alexander Mosaic", OpRom, 14. 2. 19-37.
Frye, R. [1956]. Ancient Heritage, translated by M. rajbnia, Tehran.
Sykes, S. P. [1944]. History of Iran, vol. 1, translated by S. M. Gilani, Tehran.
Poordavud, I. [1966]. Saddle tool, in: Journal of historical studies, vol. 2, 1(7), 29-46.
Mortezavi, M. [1996]. The evolution of weapons in the history of the early Achaemenid period until the end of the Sassanid era, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran.
vonGall, H. [1974]. "Neue Beobachtungen zu den sog. medischen Felsgrabern", Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Symposium on Archaeological Research in Iran (29th October - rst No¬vember, 1973), ed. F. Bagherzadeh, Tehran, 139-154.
Cheraghzadeh, S. [2010]. Evolution and its impact on the tomb of the Achaemenid era post, Shiraz.
Dehghan, A. [2011]. The study of religious symbolism in the architecture of Persepolis, Sistan and Baluchestan.
Oshidari, J. [1992]. Zoroastrianism Encyclopedia, Tehran.
Roaf, M. [1995]. Arts Achaemenid art in Iran, translated by P. Marzban, Tehran.
Pope, A. [2008]. Persian architecture, translated by K., Afsar, Tehran.
Haerinck, E. and B. Overlaet, [2008]. Altar shrines and fire altars? architectural rpresentations on Frataraka coinage. Iranica Antiqua 43, 207–233.
Bank Sepah Coin Museum.
AmiriNezhad, A. [2016]. A Research on the Religious and Political Symbols of Coins From the Early Local Dynasty of Persia’s kings, in: Biannual Research Journal of Iran Local Histories, 4(2), 121-132.
Iran Money Museum.
Browse journals by subject